Ross G Caldwell
I'm mainly interested in when and where tarot assumed the form having the numbered trumps, as in the Marseille deck. Did that happen in Italy?
Numbers were put on the cards in Italy in the 15th century, so yes.
For examples, see Kaplan Encyclopedia of Tarot volume I, pp. 125, 130-131; volume II, pp. 270-285. Some hand-painted cards also received numbers, like the so-called "Charles VI" Tarot (Kaplan I, pp. 112-116), and its sister the Catania or Castello Ursino deck (Kaplan I, p. 109).
The Sola Busca Tarot, with completely non-standard imagery, also has a fully numbered trump series.